Miami International Airport passed the 45-million-passenger milestone for the first time ever in 2018, serving nearly one million more travelers than the previous year. The busiest U.S. airport for international freight also set a new record of 2.3 million tons of freight, adding 60,000 tons to the 2017 total. MIA served nearly 21.9 million international passengers for the year – up 403,380 from 2017 – and more than 23.1 million domestic travelers in 2018, compared to 22.6 million the previous year. The airport’s audited 2018 traffic statistics were finalized this week.
Hub carrier American Airlines launched new international routes to Bonaire, Netherland Antilles on June 20, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines on December 15, Pereira, Colombia and Georgetown, Guyana on December 20, as well as new and increased service to 11 domestic destinations.
MIA also added four new passenger airlines to its roster: Air Italy launched four weekly flights to Milan in June; Brazilian low-cost carrier GOL began daily flights to Brasilia and Fortaleza in November; Sunwing Airlines began 10 weekly flights to Montreal, Quebec City, Toronto and Ottawa on December 1; and Flair began weekly service to Edmonton, Winnipegand Toronto on December 15. Existing carriers Viva Air began three weekly flights to Santa Marta, Colombia on December 18, and United Airlines began daily Washington Dulles service on December 19.
Three new cargo carriers launched MIA in 2018 as well: Southern Air began weekly all-cargo service to Hong Kong in April; Ethiopian Airlines launched two weekly freighter flights to the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa in August, creating the first-ever cargo-only route between the African continent and MIA; and Amazon Air launched double-daily freighter service in October to destinations across the U.S.
Four international carriers have scheduled entries into the Miami market in 2019: Low-cost carrier Norwegian will begin first-ever service at MIA on March 31 to London Gatwick Airport; Moroccan national carrier and four-star airline Royal Air Maroc will launch the first-ever Miami–Casablanca route on April 3 – MIA’s first passenger flights to Africa since the year 2000 and Florida’s only nonstop service to the continent; LOT Polish Airlines will begin four weekly flights to Warsaw on June 1 – MIA’s first service to Poland and the only nonstop route between Florida and Eastern Europe; and French airline Corsair will launch service to Paris Orly Airport on June 10, with four weekly flights.
The 2019 Travel Risk Map is now available. The map shows the latest medical and security risk ratings around the world. The 2019 Travel Risk Map helps organizations and their flight departments in mitigating travel risks. See full press release below:
Volatility in the world demands vigilance and awareness to rapidly evolving circumstances. The 2019 Travel Risk Map provides a comprehensive overview of risks by destination to help organisations and their flight departments in mitigating travel risks.
The Travel Risk Map is produced annually by MedAire’s parent company, International SOS, and Control Risks.
“The Travel Risk Map captures risk from a global perspective, allowing businesses, managers, and the individual traveller to visualize potential trouble spots associated with upcoming travel destinations,” said John Cauthen, Director of Security, MedAire and Control Risks.
MedAire and Control Risks provide aviation security services to mitigate risks to crew, passengers, and aircraft.
“In an increasingly volatile but interconnected world, aviation operators need to ensure they have access to the most pertinent security information and services for their operations,” continued Cauthen. “Referencing the Travel Risk Map is the first step, beginning at the macro-level, to proactively build proper situational awareness.”
Medical Risk Ratings are determined by assessing a range of health risks and mitigating factors, including: infectious diseases, environmental factors, medical evacuation data, the standard of local medical care, availability of quality pharmaceutical supplies.
Travel Security Risk Ratings are based on the current threat posed to travellers by political violence (including terrorism, insurgency, politically motivated unrest and war), social unrest (including sectarian, communal and ethnic violence) as well as violent and petty crime. Infrastructure and environment are also considered where they are of sufficient magnitude to impact risks to travellers.
MedAire and Control Risks provide a suite of aviation security services. Our goal is to ensure that flight departments have the right information at the right time to identify, assess and understand the risks to any flight at all stages of the operation, both in the air and on the ground.
Our approach is to cut through any implicit bias and exaggeration, avoiding unsubstantiated assertions and speculation in order to provide the most relevant and valuable information available. No other company can match the expertise and assistance provided by MedAire and Control Risks.
Today, the Minister of Transport announced new fatigue regulations to improve air travel safety for passengers and flight crews. The Transportation Safety Board of Canada (TSB) is pleased to see that the Minister is taking action to address this key safety issue.
Since the early 1990s, the TSB has identified fatigue as a contributing factor or a risk in at least 34 air occurrences. In October 2018, the TSB issued a call to action by adding this key safety issue to its Watchlist 2018. More specifically, the TSB asked for updated flight and duty-time regulations, as well as for air operators to implement fatigue risk management systems suited to their specific operations. The new regulations and standards announced today are a significant step in addressing this key safety issue. We look forward to a timely implementation of the new regulations and continued strong action from both the regulator and industry to reduce the risks associated with fatigue in the air transportation industry.
Fatigue is also a key safety issue in the Rail and Marine transportation industries. The TSB calls upon the Minister to take similar steps to address the risks associated with fatigue in these other industries. See Fatigue in the transportation industry.
The TSB is an independent agency that investigates marine, pipeline, railway and aviation transportation occurrences. Its sole aim is the advancement of transportation safety. It is not the function of the Board to assign fault or determine civil or criminal liability.
Risk factors, mitigation strategies and fatigue management tools
Fatigue is widely recognized as a hazard in the transportation industry that must be managed. Mitigating the risk of fatigue requires understanding it and implementing effective countermeasures.
According to scientific research,Footnote 1 to help prevent the risk of fatigue, sleep should ideally occur at night in a period of seven to nine continuous hours, so that all stages of sleep occur during each sleep period. Because of the daily (circadian) rhythm, the human body is physiologically ready for sleep at night and for activity during the day. No matter the amount of rest we get, overall performance and cognitive functioning are at their worst during the nighttime period. The body’s circadian rhythm also makes any sleep that occurs during the day less restorative than nighttime sleep.
Fatigue can impair human performance in ways that can lead to accidents. This is why the TSB routinely investigates if fatigue was present in an occurrence, if it played a role, and if the operator had practices in place to effectively manage the associated risks.
Sleep disruptions — Depending on the stage in which it occurs, sleep disruption may affect physiological functioning and/or cognitive functioning, and elevates the risk of fatigue. The risk increases when the quality or quantity of sleep has been reduced within the previous three days (acute sleep disruption) or when sleep disruptions have been sustained for periods longer than three consecutive days (chronic sleep disruption).
Continuous or prolonged wakefulness — Being awake for more than 17 hours heightens the risk of fatigue.
Circadian rhythm effects — Changing sleep-wake patterns too quickly, or working at a time of day at which our body is expecting sleep can cause circadian rhythms to desynchronize, leading to performance impairments.
Sleep disorders — Many disorders result in higher than normal levels of fatigue if they are untreated or not managed properly. Three of the more common sleep disorders are insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea and periodic limb movement disorder.
Individual factors — A person’s ability to obtain restorative sleep may be influenced by individual factors, including certain illnesses, the use of drugs or medication that affect sleep or sleepiness, or characteristics such as morningness/eveningness, or one’s capacity to nap.
To effectively manage the risks of fatigue in the transportation industry, organizations must adopt a proactive approach that includes, as a minimum, compliance with regulations and an education program that enables employees to identify fatigue, and take preventative measures that go beyond the regulations.
To minimize the risk of fatigue, the following regulations apply in the transportation industry:
Section 320 of the Marine Personnel RegulationsFootnote 2 requires that the master and every crew member of Canadian vessels have
at least six consecutive hours of rest in every 24-hour period, and
at least 16 hours of rest in every 48-hour period; and
The master shall also ensure that
not more than 18 hours but not less than six hours elapse between the end of a rest period and the beginning of the next rest period.
Subsection 5.1.1 of the Work/Rest Rules for Railway Operating EmployeesFootnote 3 requires that
The maximum continuous on-duty time for a single tour of duty operating in any class of service, is 12 hours, except work train service for which the maximum duty time is 16 hours. Where a tour of duty is designated as a split shift, as in the case of commuter service, the combined on-duty time for the two on-duty periods cannot exceed 12 hours.
According to the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs), subsection 700.16(1),Footnote 4
Subject to subsections (5) and (7), no air operator shall assign a flight crew member for flight duty time, and no flight crew member shall accept such an assignment, if the flight crew member’s flight duty time will, as a result, exceed 14 consecutive hours in any 24 consecutive hours. Where the flight is conducted under Subpart 4 or 5 using an aircraft other than a helicopter, flight duty time shall include 15 minutes for post-flight duties.
Education and awareness
The prevention of fatigue in the workplace is a shared responsibility between an organization and its employees.
An organization can help prevent fatigue by
educating employees on the causes and mitigation of fatigue;
defining appropriate policies and procedures;
ensuring that the working environment and scheduling system minimize the risk of fatigue;
striving for continual improvement in reducing the risk of fatigue.
Employees can help prevent fatigue by
recognizing the signs of fatigue in themselves and in co-workers;
taking action to ensure that fatigue arising from activities inside or outside of work does not lead to performance issues;
making effective use of appropriate countermeasures if or when fatigue occurs, e.g., consuming caffeine; turning on a bright light; engaging in exercise; exposing oneself to intermittent loud noise; getting fresh (cool) air; engaging in conversation.
Current fatigue management tools
Fatigue management and awareness training materials were developed for marine pilots in response to TSB Recommendation M96-18. These materials include the Fatigue Management Guide for Canadian Marine Pilots (TP 13959) and the Trainer’s Handbook TP 13960.
On 31 May 2018, the TSB issued Recommendations M18-01 and M18-02 to help ensure that watchkeepers whose work and rest periods are regulated by the Marine Personnel Regulationshave the tools needed to recognize and address the risks of fatigue (read more about New and previous TSB recommendations to address the risk of fatigue in the marine sector).
The United States Coast Guard has developed a Crew Endurance Management System to assist in managing the risk factors that can lead to human error and performance degradation in maritime work environments.
Transport Canada guidance material (Fatigue Management Plans: Requirements and Assessment Guidelines) helps companies develop fatigue management plans that meet the industry’s Work/Rest Rules for Railway Operating Employees.
In 2017, Transport Canada announced its intent to amend the rail safety regulatory framework,Footnote 5 which may result in amendments to the Work/Rest Rules for Railway Operating Employees and the Railway Safety Management System Regulations, 2015 or the development of new regulations to address fatigue in the rail industry.
Transport Canada provides guidance, in the form of a toolbox, to companies that adopt Fatigue Risk Management Systems (FRMS) in accordance with the CARs.
In 2017, Transport Canada proposed amendments to the CARs to mitigate the effects of fatigue with new hours of work and rest provisions.Footnote 6
UNFCCC Climate Change Conference 2018 in Katowice: Atmosfair presents the climate ranking of the world ́s largest airlines:
The atmosfair airline Index compares and ranks the carbon efficiency of the 200 largest airlines of the world. The formula contain for every flight the aircraft type, engines, winglets, seating and freight capacity as well as load factors for both passengers and co-loaded freight. Using detailed sources from authorities and official statistics, specialised data service providers and computer models used by aircraft engineers, the CO₂ emissions of an airline can be calculated at an error margin of less than two percent.
The objective of atmosfair is, to make climate efficiency a factor of competition among the airlines. It can only benefit climate protection, if the CO₂-performance of the various airlines are brought to light and into the public.
Car drivers have long been able to inform themselves about the CO₂ emissions of a car before purchasing it; however, air passengers are left in the dark when it comes to choosing the most climate-friendly airline. The Airline Index sheds light upon this matter. In the index, every airline receives between 0 and 100 efficiency points, differentiated by flight length (short, medium and long).
This tool enables passengers to compare airlines offering flights to particular destinations and choose the airline that produces the least CO₂ emissions.
For corporate clients, atmosfair offers specific analyses of individual routes. It allows for climate-conscious enterprises to identify the CO₂ efficiency of different airlines on the routes that their employees fly regularly.
American Airlines is planning to add the following new domestic routes in early 2019 according to Airline Route:
Charlotte – Erie – daily effective May 3, 2019 (Piedmont Airlines)
Chicago O’Hare – Allentown (ABE) – daily effective April 2, 2019 (Envoy Air)
Chicago O’Hare – Destin/Ft. Walton Beach – weekly effective March 9, 2019 (Envoy Air)
Chicago O’Hare – Erie – daily effective May 3, 2019 (Envoy Air)
Chicago O’Hare – Northwest Florida (Panama City) – weekly effective March 9, 2019 (SkyWest Airlines)
Chicago O’Hare – Pensacola – weekly effective March 9, 2019 (Envoy Air)
Chicago O’Hare – State College, PA – daily effective April 2, 2019 (Envoy Air)
Los Angeles – Louisville – daily effective April 2, 2019 (mainline, Airbus A319)
Los Angeles – Tulsa – daily effective April 2, 2019 (Compass Airlines)
Philadelphia – Asheville – daily effective May 3, 2019 (Piedmont Airlines)
Philadelphia – Chattanooga – daily effective May 3, 2019 (Piedmont Airlines)
Washington Reagan – Hilton Head Island, SC – twice weekly effective May 4, 2019 (Republic Airlines)
Top Copyright Photo: American Airlines Airbus A319-132 N837AW (msn 2595) LAX (Michael B. Ing). Image: 944288.