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Statement from the Transportation Safety Board of Canada chair on the release of new air fatigue regulations

Today, the Minister of Transport announced new fatigue regulations to improve air travel safety for passengers and flight crews. The Transportation Safety Board of Canada (TSB) is pleased to see that the Minister is taking action to address this key safety issue.

Since the early 1990s, the TSB has identified fatigue as a contributing factor or a risk in at least 34 air occurrences. In October 2018, the TSB issued a call to action by adding this key safety issue to its Watchlist 2018. More specifically, the TSB asked for updated flight and duty-time regulations, as well as for air operators to implement fatigue risk management systems suited to their specific operations. The new regulations and standards announced today are a significant step in addressing this key safety issue. We look forward to a timely implementation of the new regulations and continued strong action from both the regulator and industry to reduce the risks associated with fatigue in the air transportation industry.

Fatigue is also a key safety issue in the Rail and Marine transportation industries. The TSB calls upon the Minister to take similar steps to address the risks associated with fatigue in these other industries. See Fatigue in the transportation industry.

The TSB is an independent agency that investigates marine, pipeline, railway and aviation transportation occurrences. Its sole aim is the advancement of transportation safety. It is not the function of the Board to assign fault or determine civil or criminal liability.

Risk factors, mitigation strategies and fatigue management tools

Fatigue is widely recognized as a hazard in the transportation industry that must be managed. Mitigating the risk of fatigue requires understanding it and implementing effective countermeasures.

According to scientific research,Footnote 1 to help prevent the risk of fatigue, sleep should ideally occur at night in a period of seven to nine continuous hours, so that all stages of sleep occur during each sleep period. Because of the daily (circadian) rhythm, the human body is physiologically ready for sleep at night and for activity during the day. No matter the amount of rest we get, overall performance and cognitive functioning are at their worst during the nighttime period. The body’s circadian rhythm also makes any sleep that occurs during the day less restorative than nighttime sleep.

Risk factors

Fatigue can impair human performance in ways that can lead to accidents. This is why the TSB routinely investigates if fatigue was present in an occurrence, if it played a role, and if the operator had practices in place to effectively manage the associated risks.

  • Sleep disruptions — Depending on the stage in which it occurs, sleep disruption may affect physiological functioning and/or cognitive functioning, and elevates the risk of fatigue. The risk increases when the quality or quantity of sleep has been reduced within the previous three days (acute sleep disruption) or when sleep disruptions have been sustained for periods longer than three consecutive days (chronic sleep disruption).
  • Continuous or prolonged wakefulness — Being awake for more than 17 hours heightens the risk of fatigue.
  • Circadian rhythm effects — Changing sleep-wake patterns too quickly, or working at a time of day at which our body is expecting sleep can cause circadian rhythms to desynchronize, leading to performance impairments.
  • Sleep disorders — Many disorders result in higher than normal levels of fatigue if they are untreated or not managed properly. Three of the more common sleep disorders are insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea and periodic limb movement disorder.
  • Individual factors — A person’s ability to obtain restorative sleep may be influenced by individual factors, including certain illnesses, the use of drugs or medication that affect sleep or sleepiness, or characteristics such as morningness/eveningness, or one’s capacity to nap.

Mitigation strategies

To effectively manage the risks of fatigue in the transportation industry, organizations must adopt a proactive approach that includes, as a minimum, compliance with regulations and an education program that enables employees to identify fatigue, and take preventative measures that go beyond the regulations.

Work/rest requirements

To minimize the risk of fatigue, the following regulations apply in the transportation industry:

  • Section 320 of the Marine Personnel RegulationsFootnote 2 requires that the master and every crew member of Canadian vessels have
    1. at least six consecutive hours of rest in every 24-hour period, and
    2. at least 16 hours of rest in every 48-hour period; and

    The master shall also ensure that

    1. not more than 18 hours but not less than six hours elapse between the end of a rest period and the beginning of the next rest period.
  • Subsection 5.1.1 of the Work/Rest Rules for Railway Operating EmployeesFootnote 3 requires that

    The maximum continuous on-duty time for a single tour of duty operating in any class of service, is 12 hours, except work train service for which the maximum duty time is 16 hours. Where a tour of duty is designated as a split shift, as in the case of commuter service, the combined on-duty time for the two on-duty periods cannot exceed 12 hours.

  • According to the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs), subsection 700.16(1),Footnote 4

    Subject to subsections (5) and (7), no air operator shall assign a flight crew member for flight duty time, and no flight crew member shall accept such an assignment, if the flight crew member’s flight duty time will, as a result, exceed 14 consecutive hours in any 24 consecutive hours. Where the flight is conducted under Subpart 4 or 5 using an aircraft other than a helicopter, flight duty time shall include 15 minutes for post-flight duties.

Education and awareness

The prevention of fatigue in the workplace is a shared responsibility between an organization and its employees.

An organization can help prevent fatigue by

  • educating employees on the causes and mitigation of fatigue;
  • defining appropriate policies and procedures;
  • ensuring that the working environment and scheduling system minimize the risk of fatigue;
  • striving for continual improvement in reducing the risk of fatigue.

Employees can help prevent fatigue by

  • recognizing the signs of fatigue in themselves and in co-workers;
  • taking action to ensure that fatigue arising from activities inside or outside of work does not lead to performance issues;
  • making effective use of appropriate countermeasures if or when fatigue occurs, e.g., consuming caffeine; turning on a bright light; engaging in exercise; exposing oneself to intermittent loud noise; getting fresh (cool) air; engaging in conversation.

Current fatigue management tools

Marine sector

Fatigue management and awareness training materials were developed for marine pilots in response to TSB Recommendation M96-18. These materials include the Fatigue Management Guide for Canadian Marine Pilots (TP 13959) and the Trainer’s Handbook TP 13960.

On 31 May 2018, the TSB issued Recommendations M18-01 and M18-02 to help ensure that watchkeepers whose work and rest periods are regulated by the Marine Personnel Regulationshave the tools needed to recognize and address the risks of fatigue (read more about New and previous TSB recommendations to address the risk of fatigue in the marine sector).

The United States Coast Guard has developed a Crew Endurance Management System to assist in managing the risk factors that can lead to human error and performance degradation in maritime work environments.

Rail sector

Transport Canada guidance material (Fatigue Management Plans: Requirements and Assessment Guidelines) helps companies develop fatigue management plans that meet the industry’s Work/Rest Rules for Railway Operating Employees.

In 2017, Transport Canada announced its intent to amend the rail safety regulatory framework,Footnote 5 which may result in amendments to the Work/Rest Rules for Railway Operating Employees and the Railway Safety Management System Regulations, 2015 or the development of new regulations to address fatigue in the rail industry.

Aviation sector

Transport Canada provides guidance, in the form of a toolbox, to companies that adopt Fatigue Risk Management Systems (FRMS) in accordance with the CARs.

In 2017, Transport Canada proposed amendments to the CARs to mitigate the effects of fatigue with new hours of work and rest provisions.Footnote 6


atmosfair airline Index 2018

UNFCCC Climate Change Conference 2018 in Katowice: Atmosfair presents the climate ranking of the world ́s largest airlines:

The atmosfair airline Index compares and ranks the carbon efficiency of the 200 largest airlines of the world. The formula contain for every flight the aircraft type, engines, winglets, seating and freight capacity as well as load factors for both passengers and co-loaded freight. Using detailed sources from authorities and official statistics, specialised data service providers and computer models used by aircraft engineers, the CO₂ emissions of an airline can be calculated at an error margin of less than two percent.

The objective of atmosfair is, to make climate efficiency a factor of competition among the airlines. It can only benefit climate protection, if the CO₂-performance of the various airlines are brought to light and into the public.

Car drivers have long been able to inform themselves about the CO₂ emissions of a car before purchasing it; however, air passengers are left in the dark when it comes to choosing the most climate-friendly airline. The Airline Index sheds light upon this matter. In the index, every airline receives between 0 and 100 efficiency points, differentiated by flight length (short, medium and long).

This tool enables passengers to compare airlines offering flights to particular destinations and choose the airline that produces the least CO₂ emissions.

For corporate clients, atmosfair offers specific analyses of individual routes. It allows for climate-conscious enterprises to identify the CO₂ efficiency of different airlines on the routes that their employees fly regularly.

Read the full report: CLICK HERE

TUI Airways UK puts its first Boeing 737-8 MAX 8 into service

TUI Airways UK on Sunday, December 2, inaugurated Boeing 737-8 MAX 8 service with G-TUMA. Flight BY 2742 was operated between Manchester (MAN) and Malaga, Spain (AGP).

The airline announced on social media:

Say hello to our brand-new plane, the Boeing 737 MAX 8 It’s 40% quieter and 14% more fuel-efficient than the last 737 Oh, and you can charge your phone onboard, too! Can’t wait to see you in the sky.

All above photos by TUI.

TUI Airways UK aircraft slide show:

Below Copyright Photo: Next in line: TUI Airways (UK) Boeing 737-8 MAX 8 G-TUMB (msn 44595) BFI (Steve Bailey). Image: 944633.

"Menorca", second MAX 8 for TUI UK

American to add new domestic routes in the spring

Formerly painted in the Arizona Cardinals livery

American Airlines is planning to add the following new domestic routes in early 2019 according to Airline Route:

Charlotte – Erie – daily effective May 3, 2019 (Piedmont Airlines)
Chicago O’Hare – Allentown (ABE) – daily effective April 2, 2019 (Envoy Air)
Chicago O’Hare – Destin/Ft. Walton Beach – weekly effective March 9, 2019 (Envoy Air)
Chicago O’Hare – Erie – daily effective May 3, 2019 (Envoy Air)
Chicago O’Hare – Northwest Florida (Panama City) – weekly effective March 9, 2019 (SkyWest Airlines)
Chicago O’Hare – Pensacola – weekly effective March 9, 2019 (Envoy Air)
Chicago O’Hare – State College, PA – daily effective April 2, 2019 (Envoy Air)
Los Angeles – Louisville – daily effective April 2, 2019 (mainline, Airbus A319)
Los Angeles – Tulsa – daily effective April 2, 2019 (Compass Airlines)
Philadelphia – Asheville – daily effective May 3, 2019 (Piedmont Airlines)
Philadelphia – Chattanooga – daily effective May 3, 2019 (Piedmont Airlines)
Washington Reagan – Hilton Head Island, SC – twice weekly effective May 4, 2019 (Republic Airlines)

Top Copyright Photo: American Airlines Airbus A319-132 N837AW (msn 2595) LAX (Michael B. Ing). Image: 944288.

American aircraft slide show (Airbus):


Iberia to bring the Airbus A350-900 to Chicago O’Hare and Buenos Aires

Iberia Airbus A350-941 F-WZHC (EC-MYX) (msn 227) TLS (Paul Bannwarth). Image: 942971.

Iberia is assigning the new Airbus A350-900 to two new routes; Chicago (O’Hare) (May 2019) and Buenos Aires (February 2019) from the Madrid hub.


Top Copyright Photo (all others by Iberia): Iberia Airbus A350-941 F-WZHC (EC-MYX) (msn 227) TLS (Paul Bannwarth). Image: 942971.

Iberia aircraft slide show:


Air Canada to open new facility for ground support equipment services and cargo at Edmonton International Airport


Air Canada broke ground today for a new facility that will house its ground support equipment service and cargo teams at Edmonton International Airport(YEG), allowing the airline to further enhance its operational capabilities and reinforcing the airline’s commitment to Alberta’s capital city.

The 50,000 square foot (4,645 square metres) building will be constructed by Terracap Group. Air Canada has signed a 15-year lease for the multi-tenant facility, representing an investment of $19 million by the airline over the term of the lease.

Air Canada’s Ground Support Equipment team will utilize 30,000 square feet (2,787 square metres) of the new facility, while Air Canada Cargo will occupy the remaining 20,000 square feet (1,858 square metres). The new facility is expected to open in September 2019.

The new facility will include five spacious maintenance bays to facilitate the upkeep of Air Canada’s approximately 167 airport vehicles in use at Edmonton International Airport, comprising pushback tugs to bag tractors and other vehicles. The building has separate, dedicated areas for maintaining an ever-increasing fleet of baggage carts and container dollies, as well as for welding and machining operations and enables equipment painting year-round regardless of the season.  Other features include a dedicated area for electricians to carry out specialized electrical repairs and a training room that will support continuous learning by keeping mechanics current with the latest technology. Air Canada will continue to meet environmental requirements efficiently through a dedicated area to effectively handle hazardous materials.

The new building will also provide modern, upgraded facilities for Air Canada Cargo which will enable the integration of technology infrastructure and enhanced space usage for the optimal flow of goods. In 2017, Air Canada Cargo handled 3.2 million kilograms of goods, including pharmaceuticals, mail, art, and oil and gas industry equipment through its Edmonton cargo facility.

This fall from Edmonton, Air Canada will offer more than 290 flights each week (up to 44 daily flights) to 12 destinations (14 in winter) in North America, including one daily flight to Las Vegas which will launch on October 28, and the daily non-stop flights to San Francisco which began earlier this year. The carrier will offer an average of 1,770 additional seats per week from Edmonton International Airport this fall and winter, when compared to the same period last year.

SAS improves the travel experience in Copenhagen Airport


Scandinavian Airlines-SAS has issued this statement:

At Copenhagen Airport passengers traveling with SAS can now enjoy both upgraded lounges with innovative technology features, and new service products. The new products will make time spent in the airport more efficient and pleasant.



Travelers can now beat the effects of jet lag and winter depression with light therapy, enjoy a barista-brewed coffee or try out new technology before heading off on their next trip.


SAS is investing an amount in the double-digit million range to improve the travel experience for passengers traveling to and from Copenhagen Airport. These investments include a comprehensive upgrade of the SAS Lounges, a brand-new SAS Service Point and a redesign for SAS Fast Track.



“We’ve made a large investment that takes our services at Copenhagen Airport to a new level,” says Lars Sandahl Sørensen, Group Director at SAS. “SAS passengers can now enjoy a modern and innovative service that is among the best in the industry and spend their time at the airport doing exactly what they want and find useful, whether traveling for business or pleasure.”


Room for more guests in the lounges

The SAS Lounges at Copenhagen Airport have been refurbished with brand-new, classical Scandinavian furnishings and a design that is optimized for the rising number of visitors, which is the result of more passengers traveling with SAS. The SAS Business Lounge has been given more seats and upgraded toilets and washing facilities. The furnishings also ensure that the rooms and spaces feel larger and more airy.


“Copenhagen is a large and important SAS hub, where thousands of passengers from Denmark, Norway, Sweden and all over the world board SAS aircraft every day,” Sørensen says. “They expect us to deliver the service for which we are renowned, and we can now make the travel experience even smoother and more comfortable, both in the airport and onboard the aircraft.”


Passengers in the new SAS Gold Lounge can enjoy a barista-brewed coffee and beat the effects of jet lag and winter depression in Scandinavia’s dark, winter months using light therapy in the ‘Daylight Booster Zone’. In the SAS Lounge, passengers can now try out and explore upcoming technology and digital products in a new innovation hub, hosted by tech giant Panasonic.


The lamps and light fittings in the lounges are LED-based and energy-saving. All light installations have been designed centred around circular economy. This means, parts and material can be recycled and upcycled.


SAS customers can also experience a new and updated range of wines in the lounges and those who are in a hurry can now enjoy the ‘On the Go’ food bar, a concept adapted to modern travelers, who visit the lounge a short time before departure.

The Kids Room in the SAS Lounge has also been renovated, with a new, child-friendly design. Here, children can watch an animated film, relax, read a book, build a train track or a tower of bricks and create a chalk drawing on the wall. Passengers can take children under the age of two with them into the lounge free of charge.

Brand-new SAS Service Point

A brand-new SAS Service Point has also opened in Terminal 3, where SAS check-in and Bag Drop are located. The SAS Service Point has a recognizable SAS identity and, among other things, will provide computers for booking tickets, check-in, charging points for mobiles, tablets, etc. and personal service from SAS staff, who can help if problems arise with the customer’s journey.

SAS Fast Track, which is located in Terminal 3, has also been given a visual refresh and an interior in line with SAS’ updated design concept, which is characterized by subdued color tones and long-lasting materials such as leather, metal and wood.

All photos by SAS.