Category Archives: American Airlines

American, Alaska Airlines and JetBlue will require their employees to be vaccinated

From NPR:

“American Airlines, Alaska Airlines and JetBlue are joining United Airlines in requiring employees to be vaccinated against COVID-19, as the Biden administration steps up pressure on major U.S. carriers to require the shots.”

Read the full article:

American Airlines and IndiGo announce codeshare agreement

IndiGo Airlines Airbus A320-271N WL F-WWDQ (VT-IVQ) (msn 8387) TLS (Paul Bannwarth). Image: 942970.

American Airlines issued this statement about a new codeshare partner:

  • American Airlines and IndiGo announce a codeshare agreement, making it easier than ever for customers to travel to India.
  • American’s customers will have access to 29 new routes from Bengaluru and Delhi.
  • AAdvantage members will earn miles when traveling on American codeshare flights operated by IndiGo.

American Airlines is opening new doors across India this fall thanks to a new codeshare agreement with IndiGo, India’s leading airline.

The agreement, announced today, will place American’s code on 29 of IndiGo’s domestic routes in India, providing a convenient option for American Airlines customers arriving on the carrier’s new Bengaluru (BLR) and Delhi (DEL), India, flights. The codeshare, which will require U.S. and Indian governments’ approvals, is expected to begin in October, as American launches new service between New York (JFK) and DEL on Oct. 31 and between Seattle (SEA) and BLR on Jan. 4, 2022.

IndiGo, India’s largest airline by number of passengers carried, is based in Gurgaon, Haryana, India. With its fleet of 275+ aircraft, the airline operates more than 1,100 daily flights, connecting 70 domestic destinations and 24 international destinations. Since its founding in 2006, IndiGo’s 23,000 employees have professionally served more than 300 million customers.

Top Copyright Photo: IndiGo Airlines Airbus A320-271N WL F-WWDQ (VT-IVQ) (msn 8387) TLS (Paul Bannwarth). Image: 942970.

IndiGo aircraft slide show:

Forbes: American Airlines pilots say operations managers must go after summer breakdowns

According to Forbes, “American Airlines’ pilots union (Allied Pilots Association) have voted to call for replacement of the airline’s operations management team, citing the airline’s shortcomings including breakdowns following summer storms.”

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American’s and JetBlue’s responses to the DOJ lawsuit

American Airlines issued this statement:

American Airlines Chairman and CEO Doug Parker responded to the U.S. Department of Justice’s misguided lawsuit against American and JetBlue’s Northeast Alliance (NEA).

“Last summer, American and JetBlue announced an innovative alliance to increase competition in the Northeast. In just a few months, the Northeast Alliance has delivered on its promise to ensure growth and provide clear consumer benefits in New York and Boston.

“Since January, the alliance has brought new services to customers in New York and Boston, including 58 new routes, increased frequencies on more than 130 routes and codesharing on 175 routes, as well as new international flights to Tel Aviv, Athens and Delhi. Delivering on the promise of growth, the Northeast Alliance will offer more than 700 daily flights from New York and Boston this winter and continue investment to provide a seamless experience to customers.

“Before the alliance, Delta and United dominated the New York City market. The NEA has created a third, full-scale competitor in New York and is empowering more growth in Boston. Ironically, the Department of Justice’s lawsuit seeks to take away consumer choice and inhibit competition, not encourage it. This is not a merger: American and JetBlue are – and will remain – independent airlines. We look forward to vigorously rebutting the DOJ’s claims and proving the many benefits the Northeast Alliance brings to consumers.”

JetBlue Airways issued this statement:

Dear Crewmembers,

COVID-19 has thrown unimaginable challenges at us, and we’ve worked together to manage them every step of the way. We played defense to reduce spending and maintain our 21-year no furlough commitment, but we also went on the offense by investing in new routes and BlueCities that bring more of JetBlue’s competitive effect and low fares to the market. Our Northeast Alliance (NEA) with American Airlines is an example of how we played offense to not only get our fleet and Crewmembers flying again, but also set up JetBlue for long-term growth and bring more competition to the Northeast.

Given our focus on the NEA, I wanted to talk about action the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) is taking in federal court to unwind the NEA. Regardless of what the DOJ claims about us in court and in the media, it’s important you know that JetBlue’s commitment to competition and low fares remains as strong as ever. This is not at all like a merger with American – we have two different business models and are not working together on pricing. It’s also important that you have the full picture on benefits the NEA is already delivering, and I want to reassure you that the DOJ’s action will not affect our plans to continue implementing the NEA.

Many things set JetBlue apart, but our “secret sauce” is our 20,000 passionate and caring Crewmembers who believe a small airline like ours can continue to make a big difference. Each of you deliver a simple but extraordinary value proposition – that no one should have to choose between a low fare and a great experience. By bringing this to life for 21 years, you’ve helped us build a much-loved low-fare brand and a reputation for shaking up the status quo, challenging the competition to raise their game.

Even though our low fares and great service benefit travelers, it hasn’t always been easy to get our foot in the door at the largest and most important congested airports where the big airlines dominate. We’ve had to fight our way into airports like Los Angeles (LAX), Newark, Atlanta, Miami and others where the “JetBlue Effect” of lowering fares and stimulating new demand is badly needed.

If there is a silver lining to the pandemic’s impact on our industry, it’s that space freed up for us to introduce competition in airports like LAX and Miami, and we’re setting ourselves up for long-term success at London Heathrow, where we recently launched our transformative transatlantic service. I’m so proud of how far we’ve come, but there is still plenty of opportunity for us to shake up the market with more competition, especially in the Northeast where Customers who know and love JetBlue keep asking for us to grow.

While we have built a successful business in both New York and Boston, our runway for growth in the Northeast to challenge global legacy carriers Delta and United is limited. And I’m sad to say that our biggest obstacle to bringing more low fares and great service to the Northeast right now is the DOJ – the very government agency that should be making every effort to foster robust competition among airlines.

In New York’s airports, there has been quite literally no room for us to add flights. There are no slots available at LGA and JFK, and it remains extremely difficult to grow in Newark given gate and space constraints. Delta and United – with large international networks, ample financial resources, and significant airport gate and slot holdings – have a lock on the market and make it impossible for an airline like JetBlue to grow and introduce sorely needed low-fare competition. In Boston, Customers really love flying JetBlue, but our sales pitch is hampered by a relative lack of network breadth and depth compared to the deep-pocketed legacy airline that plans to grow even further there.

These obstacles to growth led us to an unlikely alliance with American Airlines which, even as the world’s largest carrier, also has not been able to compete with Delta and United’s dominance in the Northeast.

The backbone of the NEA is lots of JetBlue growth, bringing our much-loved experience and low fares on more routes as we tap into American’s slot portfolio and Customer base. We create a viable third competitor in the Northeast by connecting our growing network to American’s through codeshare and reciprocal loyalty benefits. American gets to codeshare and put its loyal Customers on JetBlue’s growing New York and Boston network of flights. The NEA also enables JetBlue to grow our network even faster than we otherwise would have, and these opportunities are a large part of why we delayed the retirement of our 30 owned E190 aircraft.

We hoped this plan to introduce new competition to the marketplace would receive a warm reception from both DOT and DOJ. After an exhaustive six-month review, the DOT welcomed this new, meaningful change to the competitive landscape by entering into an agreement with us. DOJ and some states, however, have not been receptive. DOJ believes that American’s influence will bring an end to the “JetBlue Effect.” Of course, the NEA is already up and running and every day we are proving DOJ’s theory wrong. We have no intention of abandoning our low-fare model – in fact, the NEA empowers us to deliver more of it.

The NEA is already delivering benefits

In court, DOJ is sure to face an uphill battle opposing the expansion of low fares in New York and Boston. There is absolutely no evidence that the NEA is harming consumers, and quite the opposite, it is already delivering on the benefits we promised:

The NEA is enabling the expansion of JetBlue’s low fares and great service:

  • JetBlue has announced nine new BlueCities and 32 new routes, fully enabled by access to American’s slot portfolio and feed from their Customer base.
  • At LGA, we’ll be up to 35 daily departures by the end of the year; by next summer we plan to boost that to 50+ daily JetBlue departures – bringing badly needed competition to this airport where we were capped at 16 daily departures before the NEA.
  • With JetBlue’s NEA growth, we need more aircraft flying and have delayed the retirement of the 30 E190s we own (we lease the other 30), leading to significant net aircraft growth.

Together with American, we are providing Customers more choices and benefits that create a true third competitor to the two dominant legacies in the Northeast.

  • JetBlue and American have added 58 new routes, including 18 international flights that will be launched by 2022, and increased frequencies on more than 130 routes giving more options and choices to Customers.
  • We are now codesharing on 175 routes. This gives us a combined schedule with the number of markets and seats that for the first time in our two-decade history allows us to stack up against the dominant carriers.
  • Since the NEA was implemented in February, JetBlue and American have collectively grown more quickly than Delta and United across New York and Boston, offering Customers more options for travel and getting our Crewmembers back to work faster.
  • Delta and United are already responding by launching new routes, introducing larger aircraft, and bringing premium seats to Boston and New York. This is exactly the type of action you would expect when there is a competitive influence in the market.
  • We’re introducing loyalty benefits that give both JetBlue and American Customers the opportunity to earn and redeem on both airlines, and reciprocal benefits – creating a new option for Customers that previously would not have considered us. American has 23 million AAdvantage members, and now JetBlue is a more attractive option for them.
  • Even with the NEA, we continue to independently price as we always have and remain tough competitors to American in markets where we are going to head-to-head. Our recent growth in LAX, Miami and London are just a few examples of where we have proven we will not back down from competing with American.

We have tried, and failed, for many years to gain additional slots so that we can add flights and competition. Without more slots and access available to us, we developed a creative way to grow into a stronger competitor to United and Delta in these very congested markets, while retaining our independence and competing with the same fierceness against American in other markets.

The irony now is that the government agency responsible for preserving competition is instead trying to take away our ability to further expand our low fares in these markets. What the DOJ says and does seem to be in conflict – it’s quite puzzling and hypocritical for DOJ to applaud DOT’s recent efforts to promote competition at Newark while standing in the way of JetBlue’s growth. Rather than use the public’s resources to stifle competition in court, DOJ should monitor the NEA’s progress over the months ahead and hold us accountable for delivering the Customer benefits we’ve promised.

Our implementation of the NEA will continue

While it’s extremely unfortunate DOJ would rather take us to court than help us compete, we’re ready to make a strong case on why more low-fare JetBlue growth is good for Customers. We fully expect the court to find that nothing about the NEA changes our business model or our role as a force for good in the industry.

We cannot let this lawsuit slow our momentum in bringing the NEA to life. Because of growth from the NEA, we are on track to hire 1,800 new Crewmembers this year. We fully intend to launch the new routes and BlueCities we have announced, as well as expand codeshare options. Our IT investments will move full speed ahead to improve our systems in support of our Crewmembers and Customers. Expect to see us deliver great new loyalty program enhancements in the coming months for both JetBlue and American Customers. We’ll continue to work with American to provide better re-accommodation options when our Customers’ travel plans don’t go as expected. And, within our airport operations, we’ll continue to find ways to offer a seamless Customer experience and connections – for example, with our new bussing operation at JFK.

As we continue forward, many others will stand behind the NEA – loyal Customers who now have more choices and low fares, thousands of Crewmembers benefitting from the additional flying, and key Congressional leaders like Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer who have voiced their support for the NEA. Like every challenge we’ve faced in our history, we will come out the other side stronger and prove to all the skeptics what good JetBlue can do when given the chance to make a difference.


Robin Hayes

Chief Executive Officer

American Airlines fuels low-carbon future as anchor partner to Breakthrough Energy Catalyst

American Airlines made this announcement:

American Airlines has announced that it has become an anchor partner to Breakthrough Energy Catalyst, investing $100 million in a groundbreaking collaborative effort to accelerate the clean energy technologies necessary for achieving a net zero economy by 2050.

In becoming one of Breakthrough Energy Catalyst’s first anchor partners, American is backing up its ambitious climate commitments with concrete action to accelerate the development of pivotal emissions-reduction solutions like sustainable aviation fuel (SAF).

Breakthrough Energy Catalyst is a first-of-its-kind model that brings together companies, governments, and private philanthropy to accelerate the adoption of critical, next generation clean technologies. Catalyst and its partners will work together to finance, produce and buy the new solutions that will underpin a zero-carbon economy but are currently more expensive than their existing fossil-fuel emitting counterparts. The difference between these costs is what is now referred to as the “Green Premium.”

“Avoiding a climate disaster will require a new industrial revolution. We need to make the technologies and products that don’t cause emissions as cheap as those that do, so the whole world can afford to put them to use,” said Bill Gates, Founder of Breakthrough Energy. “Catalyst will focus on supporting technologies that are vital to the world reaching net-zero emissions but are currently too expensive to be adopted at scale. By coordinating investments and directing them toward these critical technologies, we can reduce their Green Premiums and help them get to market faster, so we can all reach our climate goals. American Airlines has demonstrated both ambition and action when it comes to combating climate change, and we applaud the leadership role they’re taking in joining Catalyst as an anchor partner.”

Catalyst will start by funding projects across four technologies: sustainable aviation fuel, green hydrogen, direct air capture and long-duration energy storage.

With a goal to reach net zero by 2050 and a commitment to set a science-based intermediate target, American’s plan to reduce its emissions relies in large part on using low-carbon fuel ― namely SAF ― in increasing volumes over time. American’s partnership with Catalyst will augment the airline’s ongoing efforts to advance SAF and bring the market to scale. The airline has been taking delivery of SAF from Neste for more than a year and has committed to using 9 million gallons in total through 2023. Additionally, American has agreed to terms to purchase up to 10 million gallons of carbon neutral SAF produced by Prometheus Fuels.

American’s path to net zero also hinges on maximizing the efficiency of its aircraft and its operation, which is why the airline has invested $24 billion in modernizing its fleet with 600 new and more fuel-efficient aircraft while retiring a similar number of less-efficient planes.

Because reducing the impact of air travel on the planet is inextricably linked with the actions of many other entities, fostering impactful collaboration ― within the industry, across the private sector and with policymakers ― is fundamental to American’s sustainability strategy. The airline’s anchor partnership with Catalyst exemplifies the type of cooperation necessary to decarbonize the industry and forestall the most serious effects of climate change.

About Breakthrough Energy

Founded by Bill Gates in 2015, Breakthrough Energy is dedicated to helping humanity avoid a climate disaster. Through investment vehicles, philanthropic programs, policy advocacy, and other activities, Breakthrough Energy is committed to scaling the technologies the world needs to reach net-zero emissions by 2050.

American Airlines and Gol to form an exclusive partnership

American Airlines and Gol have made this announcement:

  • Carriers have entered into an exclusive codeshare agreement that will deepen their partnership and strengthen the largest network between the U.S. and Brazil.
  • American’s AAdvantage and GOL’s SMILES loyalty programs will create the largest joint frequent flyer program in the Americas with enhanced benefits coming in 2022.
  • Increased commercial cooperation will drive sustainable growth, including more flights to more destinations for both airlines.

American Airlines has announced that it has entered into a letter of intent to further solidify its partnership with GOL, Brazil’s largest airline. Building on the two carriers’ initial codeshare offering in 2020, the expanded partnership includes an exclusive codeshare agreement, a larger and more lucrative joint SMILES and AAdvantage® loyalty program partnership. It also expects to increase commercial cooperation with GOL to accelerate growth and create a more seamless experience for all customers.

Exclusive Codeshare between the U.S. and Brazil

GOL will become American’s sole codeshare partner in Brazil and American will become GOL’s sole codeshare partner in the U.S. On their combined networks, customers can travel to more than 30 destinations served by American in the U.S. and more than 20 new destinations in South America served by GOL.

American has served Latin America since 1942 and offers service to 17 destinations in South America, including Sao Paulo (GRU) and Rio de Janeiro (GIG) in Brazil, from its U.S. hubs in Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW), Miami (MIA) and New York (JFK). American has flown more than 14 million customers between the U.S. and Brazil in the last 10 years – more than twice as many as any other U.S. carrier. GOL serves 63 destinations in Brazil and is the country’s largest airline.

Enhanced Joint Loyalty Offering

The largest network in the Americas will also be the most rewarding for travelers. In 2022, GOL’s SMILES and American’s AAdvantage loyalty members will gain access to their elite benefits such as priority check-in, priority security, priority boarding, a larger checked baggage allowance, lounge access and preferred seats on both airlines. The two airlines also expect to offer an enhanced joint loyalty offering to give customers more ways to earn and redeem miles.

Commercial Cooperation

The strengthened relationship will also allow for further commercial cooperation in areas such as purchasing, sales tools and systems integrations, as allowed by regulatory and contractual limitations. American will have the right to appoint one member to GOL’s board of directors, who, in addition to other duties, will be granted membership and participation on GOL’s Alliance Committee and any other board committees related to the operational partnership between GOL and American.

American will invest US$200 million in 22.2 million newly issued preferred shares of GOL in a capital increase, for a 5.2% participation in the Company’s economic interest. The completion of the agreements described in this press release, including the proposed equity investment are subject to conditions, including the negotiation, execution and delivery of definitive documentation, regulatory approvals and other customary closing conditions.

How American Airlines Supported Operation Allies Refuge

American Airlines issued this report and photos:

It was a meaningful assignment: Fly hundreds of American troops home from service in Afghanistan on the weekend the nation remembered the 20th anniversary of Sept. 11.

Since the U.S. Department of Defense activated the Civil Reserve Air Fleet on Aug. 22, American Airlines has operated more than 25 flights as part of the program, aiding in the effort to bring thousands of evacuees to the U.S. from Afghanistan. On Sept. 13, at Raleigh-Durham International Airport (RDU), one of the airline’s concluding flights served to welcome U.S. service members home from their tours of duty in the Middle East.

Images capture American’s participation in Operation Allies Refuge in recent weeks, including how the airline honored the service and sacrifice of hundreds of American heroes as they made their way home.

Credit: U.S. Department of Defense.*


Credit: U.S. Department of Defense.*



Credit: U.S. Department of Defense.*


*The appearance of U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) visual information does not imply or constitute DoD endorsement.

Maintaining the mission

Team members from around the system came together to support American’s Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) activation these past few weeks. Throughout our airline, so many aviation professionals have raised their hands to help, including our Technical Operations team. So often behind the scenes, this group is charged with maintaining the safety of every aircraft in the air and keeping our airline moving. The same is the case for our CRAF flights. But there are differences, and our Tech Ops team has stepped up in a big way to ensure the safety and success of every mission.

In the air and on the ground

In addition to a full inspection before departure, each aircraft leaving the U.S. to begin a mission has two or more JFK- or PHL-based aviation maintenance technicians (AMTs) on board should any maintenance-related needs arise. It’s a voluntary position and one for which the team has overwhelmingly raised their hands to support. “Seeing everyone else doing their part, I wanted to do my part of it, too,” said JFK-based AMT Philip Chu who recently returned from a mission.

Our U.S.-based AMTs also team up with our Frankfurt, Germany (FRA)-based AMTs who have been traveling to the various military bases where our missions depart from to provide on-the-ground support, including completing full inspections prior to the flight, supporting fueling operations and loading evacuees’ luggage and personal belongings.

“Working with our Frankfurt team, we completed a maintenance check of the aircraft before it departed the military base,” said JFK-based AMT Neftaly Bayon, who quickly volunteered to be part of these missions. “When I was doing a walkaround of the aircraft, I saw a little girl who reminded me of my daughters when they were young. She was so happy, waving to everyone. I would do it again.”




Back at home

Supporting these missions and deploying our Tech Ops resources starts with the team behind the team. Our Maintenance Operations Control (MOC), Routing and Supply Chain teams have been working around the clock to prepare and position aircraft and resources and coordinate with departments across the airline who are supporting these important flights.

So many have stepped up in a big way, including engineers who have created protocols and authorizations for configuring aircraft, and maintenance control technicians who organize any maintenance needed to prepare the aircraft.

The MOC team manages the fleet and the maintenance side of the operation and coordinates across the airline to supply maintenance support — that work involves more moving pieces for the CRAF flights. “The CRAF missions are dynamic. That’s why our MOC team mans the IOC Command Center around the clock, continuing to coordinate with the other departments to manage any obstacles, which may present themselves,” said John Richter, Senior Manager of MOC.

The Materials, Supply and Aircraft on Ground (AOG) teams worked to ensure these missions had the proper materials to keep moving seamlessly. We’re flying to new destinations where we don’t have our usual support — be it parts, tools or people — which is why it’s critical that each aircraft is loaded with a fly away kit. They contain all the necessary tools and parts to address any issues with an aircraft. “The entire Supply Chain organization really stepped up to support our passengers and crew by ensuring the safety and dependability of every flight,” said Matt Flock, Senior Manager of Planning.



American and United stand together on 9-11

American Airlines made this announcement on social media:

Together, we stand with United Airlines.
Our pain from this day 20 years ago is shared, but so is our strength. We remember the lives of the colleagues, customers, family and friends we lost. And we honor them every time we take to the skies.
Together, we keep flying.

20 Years Later: Remembering those who perished on September 11, 2001 – A tragic event for aviation

From Wikipedia:

The September 11 attacks, often referred to as 9/11, were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the militant Islamist terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States of America on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

On that morning, four commercial airliners traveling from the northeastern United States to California were hijacked mid-flight by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. The hijackers were organized into three groups of five hijackers and one group of four. Each group had one hijacker who had received flight training and took over control of the aircraft. Their explicit goal was to crash each plane into a prominent American building, causing mass casualties and partial or complete destruction of the targeted buildings.

Flight AA11 BOS-LAX, hijacked and crashed into the WTC (North Tower) on September 11, 2001

Above Copyright Photo: American Airlines Boeing 767-223 ER N334AA (msn 22332) IAD (Rob Rindt Collection). Image: 955280.

The first plane to hit its target was American Airlines Flight 11 (N334AA) (above). It was flown into the North Tower of the World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan at 8:46 am. Seventeen minutes later at 9:03 am, the World Trade Center’s South Tower was hit by United Airlines Flight 175 (N612UA).

Operated flight UA 175 BOS-LAX on September 11, 2001, hijacked and flown into the WTC (South Tower).

Above Copyright Photo: Delivery livery of United’s N612UA which operated the ill-fated flight UA175 that crashed into the South Tower. United Airlines Boeing 767-222 N612UA (msn 21873) LGB (Tim Williams – Bruce Drum Collection). Image: 954969.

Operated flight UA 175 BOS-LAX on September 11, 2001, hijacked and flown into the WTC (South Tower).

Above Copyright Photo: United Airlines Boeing 767-222 N612UA (msn 21873) JFK (Michael F. McLaughlin – Rob Rindt Collection). Image: 955268.

Both 110-story towers collapsed within an hour and forty-two minutes, leading to the collapse of the other World Trade Center structures including 7 World Trade Center, and significantly damaging surrounding buildings.

A third flight, American Airlines Flight 77 (N644AA), flown from Dulles International Airport, was hijacked over Ohio. At 9:37 am, it crashed into the west side of the Pentagon (the headquarters of the American military) in Arlington County, Virginia, causing a partial collapse of the building’s side.

The fourth, and final flight, United Airlines Flight 93 (N591UA), was flown in the direction of Washington, D.C. The plane’s passengers attempted to regain control of the aircraft away from the hijackers and ultimately diverted the flight from its intended target; it crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania at 10:03 am. Investigators determined that Flight 93’s target was either the White House or the U.S. Capitol.

In the immediate aftermath of the attacks, suspicion quickly fell onto al-Qaeda. The United States formally responded by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had not complied with U.S. demands to expel al-Qaeda from Afghanistan and extradite al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden. Bin Laden escaped to the White Mountains where he came under attack by U.S.-led forces, but managed to breakout. Although bin Laden initially denied any involvement, in 2004 he formally claimed responsibility for the attacks. Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U.S. support of Israel, the presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for almost a decade, bin Laden was located in a hideout in Abbottabad, Pakistan and subsequently killed during Operation Neptune Spear.

The destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure seriously harmed the economy of New York City and created a global economic recession. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. The U.S. and Canadian civilian airspaces were closed until September 13, while Wall Street trading was closed until September 17. Many closings, evacuations, and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, and the Pentagon was repaired within a year. The construction of the World Trade Center complex’s replacement began in November 2006, and the building opened in November 2014.

RIP 2,977 Brave Souls

The attacks resulted in 2,977 fatalities, over 25,000 injuries, and substantial long-term health consequences, in addition to at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. It remains the deadliest terrorist attack in human history and the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 340 and 72 killed, respectively.

Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County, Virginia, and the Flight 93 National Memorial at the Pennsylvania crash site.

Visit the 9/11 Memorial and Museum: