The UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) has announced that it will allow UK airlines to operate passenger flights with the Boeing 737 MAX aircraft, subject to close oversight. The ban on the aircraft operating in UK airspace will also be removed. The changes come into effect today. It follows similar decisions by the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Transport Canada.
The decision follows the approval of design modifications to the aircraft itself, how it is flown, and to pilot training. This has included modification to the aircraft’s Manoeuvring Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS) and other key safety changes aimed at preventing further accidents. The CAA has been closely involved in this approval work and the extensive process undertaken by all involved.
The CAA is in close contact with TUI, currently the only UK operator of the aircraft, as it returns its aircraft to service. As part of this we will have full oversight of the airline’s plans including its pilot training programs and implementation of the required aircraft modifications.
The removal of the airspace ban will allow foreign operators to fly the Boeing 737 MAX in UK airspace. All airlines, however, will need to go through the necessary steps to return the aircraft to service, including pilot training, so this may result in flights of the type into the UK not being seen immediately.
The aircraft was grounded following two tragic accidents (Lion Air Flight 610 on October 29, 2018 and Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 on March 10, 2019). The UK was one of the first countries to act, preventing the aircraft from using its airspace.
Richard Moriarty, Chief Executive at the UK Civil Aviation Authority, said: “Our thoughts remain with those affected by the tragic accidents of the Boeing 737 MAX. This is not a decision we have taken lightly and we would not have allowed a return to service for UK operators, or lifted the ban on the aircraft operating in UK airspace, unless we were satisfied that the aircraft type is airworthy and can be operated safely. The international work to return the Boeing 737 MAX to the skies has been the most extensive project of this kind ever undertaken in civil aviation and shows how important the cooperation between states and regulators is to maintaining safety.”
The CAA has based its decision to allow a return to service on detailed information from EASA, the FAA and Boeing, in addition to extensive engagement with airline operators and pilot representative organizations. The CAA worked alongside EASA, as our technical agent, reviewing its work as the validating authority. During this process the UK has been fully sighted on the technical assurance activity conducted by EASA. Additionally, the UK participated in pilot training forums and simulator evaluations.
TUI has six 737 MAX aircraft on the UK register.
The main modifications to the aircraft that allow a safe return to service are:
- Flight Control Computer (FCC) software changes, so that both of the aircraft’s Angle of Attack (AoA) sensor inputs are used by the aircraft systems (rather than previously one)
- safeguards against MCAS activating unnecessarily, due to a failed or erroneous AoA sensor
- removal of the MCAS repeat command
- revised limits on the MCAS command authority
- revisions to flight crew procedures and training requirements
- implementation of an AoA ‘disagree’ alert indication that would appear on the pilots’ primary flight displays
- cross FCC trim monitoring, to detect and shutdown erroneous pitch trim commands
The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is responsible for the initial type certification (approval) of the Boeing 737 MAX as it is designed in the USA, and it is the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) that validates this certification across the EU.